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Understanding Windows 10 updates

In previous versions of Windows, we had service packs and critical / non-critical updates. But Microsoft changed all of that with Windows 10. To better understand Windows 10 updates, we need to take a closer look.

Understanding Windows 10 updates

With the release of Windows 10, Microsoft changed the concept of the Windows operating system. Microsoft calls it Windows as a Service. Basically, it is a new way to keep Windows 10 up to date.

Now the terminology Microsoft uses can be a little confusing. But when you break it down, it is quite simple. Let's start with the big picture, then work our way into the details.

Now Microsoft has created two (2) different categories for updates: Feature and Quality. Now this is where things get a little confusing. When Windows 10 downloads updates, it refers to them by Version (Feature) and Build (Quality)

In fact, everyone refers to Windows 10 by the Version and Build numbers. To better understand the difference between Feature (Version) and Quality (Build) updates, let's take a look at the About Windows program.

For this we will need to use the Run dialog box. I like to press the Windows Logo key Windows logo key + R to bring up the Run dialog box, but there are five (5) ways that you can do it. Here is a list of all of them.

The Run dialog box with the About Windows program name typed in
The Run dialog box with the About Windows program name typed in.

Once you have the Run dialog box up, just type in winver and click on OK. The following dialog box will appear. The Version number and the Build number are located on the same line.

The About Windows screen in Windows 10
The About Windows screen in Windows 10

Now let's take a look at the Windows 10 update history page.
The Windows 10 update history page
Here you will see Windows 10 updates broken down into Version (Feature) and Build (Quality). Now let's take a look and the difference between them.

Feature (Version) updates

Microsoft is planning on releasing Feature (Version) updates twice a year. They will include all of the Quality (Build) updates that were released for the previous version (up to the release date of the new version).

And Feature (Version) updates will include any new programs and / or features the have been tested out first by Microsoft employees and then the Windows Insider Program.

Programs and features can also be removed from Feature (Version) updates. So, if you are missing a Windows program after you apply a Feature (Version) update to Windows 10 you will know why.

What also can be removed is support for older hardware. Microsoft has already started to do this with some discontinued Atom processor based systems. So, if your computer doesn't run right after a Feature (Version) update, this could be the reason why.

Now the names of Feature (Version) updates will vary. We have had Feature updates named Anniversary (Version 1607), Creators (Version 1703) and Fall (Version 1709).

The Version naming is kind of like a date stamp, as it is made up from the month and year it was released. The first two (2) digits are the year and the last two (2) digits are the month.

Now there is reason why you need to be able to identify the Windows 10 version you have. Microsoft is only supporting the three (3) most current versions. If you do not keep up on Feature (Versions) updates, you will stop getting Quality (Builds) updates.

Quality (Build) Updates

So, in previous Windows versions you would get the twice monthly updates: the second Tuesday of the month would be critical updates and the fourth Tuesday of the month would be non-critical.

Now Quality (Build) updates can be a mixture of security and non-security fixes. And the Quality (Build) updates are cumulative, so each one contains all of the previous Quality (Build) updates for that version of Windows 10.

For example, let's say you install Quality (Build) update #1 and miss Quality (Build) update #2, Quality (Build) update #3 has everything from #1 and #2 included. No more having to do multiple updates when you install / reinstall Windows.

With Windows 10, Quality (Build) updates usually are released on the second Tuesday of the month, to coincide with security updates for previous Windows versions. If Microsoft is going to release a security update, they release it for all supported versions of Windows. Not just Windows 10.

Microsoft also releases Quality (Build) updates periodically too. But for now, you can always count on Quality (Build) updates on the second Tuesday of the month.

Things to remember about Windows 10 Updates

  • If you miss an Quality (Build) update, don't worry. The next one will bring you up to date.
  • Don't forget to install Feature (Version) updates when they come available. You never want to get more than two (2) Feature (Version) updates behind. That way you will always get the latest security and non-security fixes for Windows 10.

Understanding long folder and file names in Windows

Did you know that there is a limit to how long a file name can be? Did you know that the folder name is also include in that limit? And what about the path? Let's take a look at long folder and file names in Windows.

Understanding long folder and file names in Windows

I recently recovered files from several Windows based computers for a client. He asked that I put them onto an external drive for storage. But I ran into a problem, file names that were too long.

Now allot of people think that the maximum length for the name of a File in Windows is 255 characters. But that is not really correct. Technically, Folders are also a File but with a special attribute designating it as a Folder.

And Folder and Sub-Folder names are also included in the full File name. So, the actual File name also includes the Folder and Sub-Folder name(s) as well. They all factor into the 255 character limit.

So, when you put all of the names of the Folder, Sub-Folder(s) and File together, it is called a Path. A Path is a string of Folder, Sub-Folder and/or File names, backslashes and sometimes a volume name (drive letter).

The Path to a Folder or File on your computer will contain a drive letter (C:\, D:\, etc.) at the beginning. A Path to a network Folder or File will contain just two (2) backslashes (\\) at the beginning. And a Path can be up to 260 characters in length.

For example, let's say you have a file named 'My Text File.txt' in a Sub-Folder of your Documents Folder called 'Simply Text Files'. The complete Path for it would be:

C:\Users\username\Documents\Simply Text Files\My Text File.txt

The name of the File itself is only 16 characters, but with the name of the Folder and Sub-Folders included, it is 59 characters. And the complete Path is 62 characters. And yes, spaces do count as characters.

So, getting a long File name error does not necessarily mean the actual name of the File is too long, it just means the length of the names of the Folder, Sub-Folder(s) and File altogether are too long. The simplest solution is to shrink the Folder or Sub-Folder(s) name(s) and leave the actual File name alone.

Now in my case, I was dealing with a couple thousand File names that were too long. And I could not identify where all of the Files were located. So, I went looking online for a program that could help me with this issue.

What I found was a cool little program called TLPD (Too Long Path Detector).
Too Long Path Detector folder selection screen
It showed me where all of the long file names were. And lucky for me, they were grouped together in Folders and Sub-Folders with fairly long names.

So, using the output from TLPD,
Too Long Path Detector text file output
I started shortening the Folder and Sub-Folder names. I kept running TLPD until I had all of the Paths down to under 225 characters. It was then I was able to copy all of the Files to an external drive for storage.

My four favorite free programs I always recommend

Being a computer repair technician, I get asked allot of questions. Quite a few of them are about what software do I recommend. And since I am frugal, I will usually suggest ones that are free. So here are my four (4) favorite free programs I always recommend.

My 4 favorite free programs I always recommend

Free graphic programs

When it comes to graphics, everyone knows about Photoshop. And you have probably heard the phrase 'photoshopped' before. Photoshop has become the leading image editor.

But what if you cannot afford Photoshop? Well, there are other alternatives for image editing. And it just so happens that they are free too.

Paint.NET

The user interface inside of Paint.NET 4.0

Paint.NET started out as a free replacement for the Paint program that comes with Windows. But it has grown to be a top-line graphics editor that compares to Photoshop for all of its useful features.

Paint.NET has quite the intuitive interface and includes support for layers, special effects and hundreds of plugins. Paint.NET runs only on the Windows platform and does require the latest version of the .NET framework.

Click here for more information on Paint.NET

GIMP

The GIMP user interface

GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) is another alternative image editor to Photoshop. It too has a full set of editing tools including layers, channels and over 100 plugins.

GIMP is part of the GNU Project, which is open-source, so you are encouraged to participate in its development. GIMP will run on Windows, OS X and GNU/Linux operating systems.

Click here for more information on GIMP

Free productivity programs

OpenOffice

The main screen inside of OpenOffice 4

When it comes to productivity software, there is one question I constantly get, "Is there an alternative to Microsoft Office?". I always respond with "Yes, Apache OpenOffice. And it is free.".

Apache OpenOffice is another open-source project that is comparable and compatible with Microsoft Office. In fact, you can open, edit and save all Microsoft Office file formats with OpenOffice.

It has Writer, a word processor equivalent to Microsoft Word, Calc, a spreadsheet program equivalent to Microsoft Excel and Impress, a multi-media slide-show presentation program equivalent to Microsoft PowerPoint.

It also includes Draw, a graphic program equivalent to Microsoft Paint and Base, a database program equivalent to Microsoft Access. There are versions of OpenOffice for Windows, OS 10 and Linux operating systems.

Click here for more information on OpenOffice

Free anti-spam program

MailWasher Free

E-mail is the most popular way right now for hackers to attack your computer. All they have to do is get you to open a bogus e-mail in a web browser or e-mail client.

But with MailWasher Free, you can check your mail securely. MailWasher Free downloads nothing but the text of your e-mail. No attachments are downloaded and no HTML is rendered.

Now, you cannot use MailWasher Free as e-mail client, since it does not have an e-mail editor. It is just for deleting unwanted mail on your mail server. That way the unwanted mail never makes its way into your browser or mail program.

Now MailWasher Free is supported by ads that appear inside the program itself. If you have more than one e-mail address or want to avoid the ads, you may want to think about purchasing MailWasher Pro.

Click here for more information on MailWasher free

My digital toolbox 3

When it comes to repairing computers, every technician has what I call a digital toolbox. It is software that they use for specific tasks, like finding information on hardware or cloning drives. So here is another installment of my digital toolbox.

My digital toolbox 3

CPU-Z

Screenshot of CPU-Z

When it comes to finding the specifications of your motherboard, processor, etc., you could open your computers case and disassemble the components to get that information. Or you could just download and run CPU-Z.

CPU-Z will display the all of the information on your CPU (Central Processing Unit), motherboard, memory and GPU (Graphics Processing Unit). It can even benchmark your existing processor against preloaded reference CPU's.

I recently needed to find out what specific memory a laptop was running. Instead of tearing it down to look at the memory modules, I just ran CPU-Z. If you need to know the specifications of your computer's hardware, CPU-Z is a great way to do it.

Click here for more information on CPU-Z

Samsung Data Migration

Screenshot of Samsung Data Migration

Now upgrading your HDD (Hard Disk Drive) to an SSD (Solid State Drive) can be tricky. But if you purchase certain Samsung SSD's, you can utilize their free cloning software, Samsung SSD Data Migration.

I have used this software before and it does work pretty flawlessly. All you have to do is download and install the Samsung Data Migration software on your computer. The only thing you will need is a drive adapter or docking station to attach the Samsung SSD to your computer.

Once you have the Samsung Data Migration software installed, you attach your new Samsung SSD via an adapter or docking station and then start up the Samsung Data Migration software.

Now you have to keep in mind that you want to have a Samsung SSD that is relatively the same size (in gigabytes) or larger than you existing HDD. That way you don't have any issues with shrinking any of the partitions. Expanding them is easy, shrinking them can cause problems.

Another thing to keep in mind is if your cloning a 3.5" desktop HDD to a 2.5" Samsung SSD and your computer case does not have a 2.5" mounting bracket you will need to have a 2.5" to 3.5" adapter bracket.

As I mentioned before, Samsung Data Migration software works with specific Samsung SSD's, so check the user manual first for the list of supported Samsung drives.

Click here for more information on Samsung Data Migration

Acronis True Image WD Edition Software

Screenshot of Acronis True Image WD Edition Software

Now when it comes to free drive cloning software, nobody can beat Western Digital. They offer a stripped-down version of Acronis True Image for use with any Western Digital HDD or Sandisk SSD.

The nice thing about this software is that besides drive cloning it will also backup the entire system, individual partitions or just folder / files. You just have to have a qualifying drive (Western Digital or Sandisk).

Now this software will clone to either a physically installed drive or one that is attached via a drive adapter or docking station. It actually has its own boot loader in which it boots to when cloning a drive.

Just remember that when using any drive cloning software, you will need to turn the computer off after the cloning process is done and change the new cloned drive out for the old existing drive.

Click here for more information on Acronis True Image WD Edition

How to tell if your desktop computer power supply has failed

There may be a time when your desktop computer does not start up. There could be a few reasons why it does not start. The first thing that comes to mind is a failed power supply. Here's how to test your desktop power supply.

How to tell if your desktop computer power supply has failed

Living in Phoenix, we have one thing that really takes a toll on a desktop computer. No, it is not the heat, it is the dust. Since our environment here is so dry, we get a lot of dust.

How to clean the dust out of your computer

And since dust does conduct electricity, power supplies have a tendency to fail. Even if you routinely clean your desktop computer, they still only have a life span of around 3 to 5 years.

So, if when you press the power button your desktop computer does not start and there are no lights that light up, then you may have a failed power supply.

Now if you do not feel comfortable working around electricity or inside of your desktop computer, please contact a local computer technician.

How to test your desktop computer power supply

  1. Disconnect the power cord that comes from the outlet to the power supply.
  2. After you have disconnected the power cord, open up the case and touch any metal part of the power supply or case to discharge any remaining energy.
  3. Make a note or take pictures of all of the connections that lead from the power supply to the different devices. Once you have documented all of the power leads, then remove all of connections (SATA, Molex, PCI-e, ATX, MB, etc.) to all of the different devices and motherboard.
  4. Create a jumper from a piece of thin gauge wire or paper clip.
  5. Plug the power cord back in to the jack on the back of the power supply.
  6. Using the jumper you created, connect Pin 16 to either Pin 17 or Pin 18.
    Motherboard power supply connectior
    If the power supply fan starts to run, the power supply has output voltage and is good. If the power supply fan does not spin, it is time to replace it.

If your power supply has failed, make note of what type and how many connectors your existing power supply has.
Common desktop power supply connections
Also check the stated output of your existing power supply from the label on the side.

I also recommend that you use tape measure or ruler is measure the dimensions of the power supply, (Width x Height x Depth) as you will want to get as close as possible to these for the replacement power supply.

Customer service is #1

Here at Geeks in Phoenix, we take pride in providing excellent customer service. From computer repair, virus removal and data recovery, we aim to give the highest quality of service.

Bring your computer to us and save

Our in-shop computer repair service  is based on the time we work on your computer, not the time it takes your computer to work!

Contact us

Geeks in Phoenix
4722 East Monte Vista Road
Phoenix, Arizona 85008
(602) 795-1111

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Geeks in Phoenix is an IT consulting company specializing in all aspects of Computer Repair / PC Repair / Laptop Repair. Since 2008, our expert computer repair technicians have been providing outstanding Computer Repair, Virus Removal, Data Recovery, Photo Manipulation and Website Support.

Geeks in Phoenix have the best computer repair technicians providing computer repair and service in Phoenix, Scottsdale and Tempe Arizona. We offer In-Shop, On-Site and Remote (with stable Internet connection) computer repair service.

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